"I had to make a last-minute change to this list because Paul Pogba was planned to be in this list," Deschamps told reporters on Thursday.
"But unfortunately for him, he took a test [for COVID-19] yesterday which turned out to be positive today, so at the last minute he was replaced by Eduardo Camavinga."
The news will come as a blow to United, who return for preseason training next Wednesday. Aaron Wan-Bissaka is already set to miss the start of preseason training with the club as he undergoes a 14-day quarantine after returning from holiday in Dubai.
Earlier this week, United captain Harry Maguire was found guilty of aggravated assault, resisting arrest and repeated attempts of bribery following a trial on the Greek island of Syros, regarding an altercation with police officers on Mykonos. Maguire will appeal the decision.
Pogba's United teammate Anthony Martial returns to France's squad and could make his first appearance since 2018 after a strong end to the season, which saw him score six goals in the final nine Premier League games of the campaign after the restart.
Lyon midfielder Houssem Aouar, who has been linked with a move to Manchester City, also has been included after his impressive performances in the Champions League, in which he led his side to the semifinals.
Information from Reuters was used in this report.